Low back pain: causes and treatment

Low back pain is a rather unpleasant phenomenon that may indicate the presence of serious diseases. The lower back has a greater load compared to other parts of the spine, so it is more prone to injury.

Spasms in the lower back can be a symptom of sciatica, osteochondrosis, scoliosis and many other pathologies.

back pain in the lumbar region

Lower back pain: possible causes

It can occur after sports training, a long stay in one position, after an awkward movement.

Risk factors:

  • obesity;
  • maternity/recent childbirth;
  • sports training;
  • sedentary work (drivers, cashiers, etc. );
  • work associated with heavy physical exertion;
  • work in a standing position.

After overstrain, the discomfort goes away on its own - rest is enough. Its periodic appearance indicates the presence of pathology. Without quality treatment, the condition can worsen significantly: sometimes only surgical intervention is indicated.

Diseases accompanied by discomfort in the lower back

This symptom in medicine is classified into primary and secondary.

In the first case, the discomfort is caused directly by diseases of the back, especially the spine:

  • osteochondrosis of this area (a third of all cases of pain);
  • spondylosis / spondylolisthesis / spondylarthrosis;
  • intervertebral disc protrusion or intervertebral herniation.

Secondary pain is said to be caused by damage to other organs:

  • fracture due to osteoporosis;
  • tumor in the spinal canal;
  • vertebral fracture;
  • muscle fatigue;
  • anatomical narrowness of the spinal canal;
  • kyphosis / scoliosis / kyphoscoliosis / Scheuermann-Mau disease;
  • arthritis (rheumatic, psoriatic, osteoarthritis);
  • discitis, osteomyelitis, vertebral tuberculosis;
  • urinary system disorders: urolithiasis / pyelonephritis;
  • gynecological diseases: ovarian cancer or cyst, endometriosis;
  • complicated pregnancy.

Types of pain

Severe lower back pain

These are observed in osteochondrosis. Discomfort is present when moving, sitting, lifting heavy objects and even when coughing/sneezing. Unpleasant sensations can be given to the lower extremities. The patient urgently needs to see a neurologist.

Severe discomfort accompanies sciatica. The pain is dull or sharp, aching, usually one-sided.

It can give to the buttock, thigh, and even lower leg; worse from change of position, coughing, walking. Radiculitis is treated by a neurologist. Patients are advised to rest on a hard mattress that will support the lower back.

Acute lower back pain

This can be due to sitting in an awkward position for a long time, carrying/lifting heavy objects, falling, bumping, sudden movements, as well as drafts and hypothermia.

A sharp attack accompanies the displacement of the intervertebral discs. The latter occurs with a fracture of the spine, osteochondrosis, heavy physical labor, weightlifting.

Displacement can also occur after surgery in this area. Diagnosis in this case is carried out by a neurologist. He also prescribes treatment.

Aching pain in the lumbar spine

This happens with myositis - inflammation of the back muscles. The disease appears after a strong overvoltage or hypothermia. It is accompanied by a stiffness of movements. The pain becomes sharp with movement.

Chronic (permanent) lower back pain

Periodic attacks accompany spondylosis deformans. And the affected area may become numb. In addition, sometimes there is weakness in the legs.

It should also be taken into account that chronic pain is characteristic of Bechterew's disease, oncological pathologies. They can also indicate a metabolic disorder.

Displaced pains

Sometimes it seems to a person that the lower back hurts, but in fact the reason lies in the defeat of a completely different part of the body. This happens with diseases of the pelvic organs, pancreas, kidneys, colon.

Back pain: when to consult a doctor?

Do not hesitate to consult a specialist in the following cases:

  • the attack lasts 3 or more days;
  • discomfort arose after an injury;
  • at the same time, the lower back, leg and feet hurt;
  • pain syndrome is associated with numbness of a limb.

What to do with severe spasms in the lumbar region

If the causes are unknown, the temperature should be measured. An increase in this indicator indicates infection and inflammation. Other symptoms are also determined (violation of the stool, vomiting, pain on one side only). Then you need to call a doctor or an emergency team.

If the causes are known, such as a muscle strain or bruise, an anti-inflammatory medication should be taken first to reduce discomfort.

Relieve swelling, increase fluid circulation to remove harmful substances from the body, a single dose of diuretics helps.

An orthopedic belt or even an ordinary towel will help fix the muscles and bones in a stable state.

What not to do with lower back discomfort

It is forbidden to do warm-up procedures without making a diagnosis.

They cause blood flow, which is not always safe. In case of prolonged discomfort of an unknown nature, do not use painkillers. In this case, the disease will still progress, but without discomfort.

It is possible to fix the vertebrae in any part of the back by a chiropractor only after examination, diagnosis and determination of the cause of the pathology. Vertebrae are not always displaced due to trauma, it can also occur as a result of dystrophic processes. The reduction can pinch the nerve and destroy the processes of the vertebra.

How to treat back pain at home: folk recipes

An alcoholic tincture of burdock or eucalyptus will help relieve discomfort. It can also be used for compresses. For the same purpose, fresh horseradish leaves are applied to the affected area. They are changed daily as needed.

  1. Horse chestnut ointment. The rendered fat is mixed with dried horse chestnut grass and camphor oil. Components are taken in equal proportions. The agent is applied to thin pieces of black bread and applied to the affected areas;
  2. You can treat with horse chestnut tincture. A cotton cloth or gauze is moistened in it, which is applied to the lower back;
  3. Effectively relieves discomfort in the joints and bones tincture of the golden mustache on "Bishofite". It is necessary to add 35-40 particles of the plant in ½ l of the latter. The mixture is left for 14 days. When time passes, it is filtered and applied in the evening in compresses.

Nutrition for back problems

To strengthen the bone apparatus, you need to enrich the diet with healthy foods and reduce the amount of harmful foods.

Liver and fatty fish (eg salmon, sardines, mackerel) are very useful. These foods are rich in vitamin D, fatty acids and niacin.

Dairy products, meat, cereals, fresh fruits, especially garlic and lemons - all this should prevail in the diet.

A lot of potassium is found in cabbage and spinach, and vitamin C - in citrus fruits.

Vitamin A can be obtained from eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, red, orange and yellow fruits.

You should consume less caffeinated drinks, as well as sweets, spicy, fatty and fried foods.

Exercises for the spine

In case of minor discomfort, as well as for the prevention of these in the back area, it is recommended to perform a set of exercises:

  1. Lie on your back, place your hands along the body, bend your legs a little at the knees. The legs tilt to the right and the body in the opposite direction. In this position, they freeze for 5 seconds, then return to their original position. Turn the other way in the same way. You need to perform 10 approaches;
  2. On your knees, place your hands on a chair in front of you. Next, bend and arch your back as much as possible. Perform up to 10 approaches;
  3. Lie on your back with your arms/legs straight. First, the right leg is lifted about 15 cm off the floor and kept elevated until a feeling of fatigue sets in. Repeat the same with the left leg. You need to perform 5 sets with each leg.

Back pain prevention

To reduce the risk of problems, you should follow a few simple rules:

  1. Less time spent sitting;
  2. During sedentary work, every hour do a small warm-up for the spine, limbs;
  3. Lift / carry weights correctly - keep your back straight, do not lift sharply, divide the load into several parts;
  4. Perform exercises to strengthen the muscle corset (support for the spine);
  5. The mattress should be medium-hard to properly support the lower back.
  6. Watch your posture, don't slouch;
  7. Rise more often towards the wall, touching it with your heels, buttocks, shoulder blades. You need to stand in this position for 3 minutes;
  8. It is recommended to do sports to strengthen the muscles that hold the spine: walking, skiing, wushu/qigong gymnastics, swimming, yoga;

You should not engage in running, boxing, tennis, martial arts, skiing, horseback riding.